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Freedom of Expression, Academic Freedom, Equality, Free Speech, Universities


This paper considers the institutional responsibilities that arise from the separate but related values of freedom of expression, academic freedom, and equality rights at Canadian public universities.

It introduces some applicable Canadian legal principles and considers whether freedom of expression can properly be limited. It also addresses the importance of institutional support for those who face threats or unfair criticism as a result of activities performed in the course of their university role.

The paper argues that universities should actively foster a robust and inclusive institutional culture that advances substantive equality while ensuring that policies and procedures do not place disproportionate burdens on those who bear greatest risks.

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